歐洲萬象

國際條約在歐盟會員國憲法上的地位(上)The condition of international treaties in the constitutions of EU member states

 

國立高雄大學榮譽教授 王泰銓
National University of Kaohsiung  Emeritus Professor Dominique T.C. Wang

一、  概說

       根據1969年《維也納條約法公約》,條約是指國際法主體之間簽訂的有關其權利義務的受國際法管轄的書面協定。廣義的條約包括有關政治、經濟、軍事與文化等各種協定。其名稱則有公約、協定、議定書、換文、聯合國宣言和憲章等不同的稱呼;狹義的條約指重大的政治性的協定,如同盟條約、邊界條約等。申言之,軍事、防衛同盟,或安全保障之類的政治條約,只約束締約國政府,與人民的權利並無直接關係,不會發生其在國內法上地位的問題。但諸如經貿以及保護特許、專利、版權、智慧財產權等經濟條約,或勞工衛生等社會條約,直接與人民有密切關係,其執行常依賴國內法院之幫助,故其在國內法上的地位,確實為一值得注意的問題。

       另外值得注意的,歐盟法之自主、統合性,奠定了歐盟的條約(包括歐盟基礎條約和歐盟的其它條約)在歐盟會員國法上的優越地位,會員國憲法反映、落實了歐盟基礎條約優越的諸多規範; 若干會員國憲法基於其兩元法律體系,增訂加入歐盟的條款,以避免轉化的憲政問題;葡萄牙,意大利,希臘和西班牙等南歐國家,爆發國內經濟危機後,會員國政府發生國債已無法再融資或獨自救助負債累累的銀行情形,也被要求將國債舉債上限入憲。

        二次世界大戰前,一般國際條約的效力除了海地、西班牙等國家承認條約優於法律外,其他國家大底認為與法律相等,或者在法律之下。戰後有很大的變化,以歐盟會員國為例,若干國家在制定新憲法或修改憲法時,多承認國際條約的優越性,或規定高於法律,甚至於高於憲法。尤其歐盟基礎條約在聯盟的至高無上之地位!

國際條約既有國內法上的效力,美國學者Mattias Kumm論述國際條約優於國內法[1],日本學者關於條約與憲法何者優越的問題,有兩種不同的學理。其一,條約優越說,主張條約的效力優於憲法的效力。橫田教授認為,日本憲法第98 條第2項既然規定須誠實遵守條約及國際法,當然應承認其效力高於國內法。田中教授亦從憲法的其他條文作推理解釋,承認條約的優越性,指出憲法第98 條第1項最高法規條項規定法律、命令、詔敕及關於國務的其他行為,若與憲法牴觸,則為無效,而並未規定條約不得牴觸憲法;且憲法第81條只規定最高法院得審查法令有無違憲,而沒有規定得審查條約有無違憲,故從整個日本憲法精神觀之,應解釋條約優於憲法。其二,憲法優越說,主張憲法的效力優於條約的效力。此說對日本憲法第98條第1項及第81條的規定作擴大解釋,認為該項所謂法令亦包含條約在內,所以最高法院亦得審查條約有無違憲,如認為違憲,得宣告無效。以上兩種學理,從日本新憲法的整個精神觀之,條約優越說為日本大多學者之見解[2]

       在中華人民共和國憲法中並無明文規定國際條約是否優於國內法,但基於「條約必須遵守」的國際法則,以及民事訴訟法優先適用國際條約的規定看來,國際條約的優越性是顯而易見的:民事訴訟法(2017年)第四編涉外民事訴訟程序的特別規定,在中華人民共和國領域內進行涉外民事訴訟,適用本編規定。本編沒有規定的,適用本法其他有關規定(第259條);中華人民共和國締結或者參加的國際條約同本法有不同規定的,適用該國際條約的規定,但中華人民共和國聲明保留的條款除外(第260條);對享有外交特權與豁免的外國人、外國組織或者國際組織提起的民事訴訟,應當依照中華人民共和國有關法律和中華人民共和國締結或者參加的國際條約的規定辦理(第261條)。但如有政治因素介入,條約可毀約於一旦,例如1984年中英關於香港的聯合聲明,不堪港人民主運動的衝擊,終究成為歷史的文件說!

       以下進一步分析國際條約在歐盟各會員國憲法上的狀態,尤其歐盟基礎條約具體的影響:

 

二、歐盟會員國憲法的規定

(一)法國

法蘭西共和國憲法 (1958年公布,最新2008年修訂)[3]第11條第1項,法蘭西共和國總統得依照政府公報公告的政府在議會會議期間提出的建議或議會兩院聯合提出的建議,將涉及公權力組織、國家經濟、社會或環境政策與促進公共服務的改革,或希求授權批准的國際條約,雖與憲法不相牴觸但將影響現行制度運行的法律草案,提交公民投票表決。總統談判及批准條約。無需批准之國際協定,其談判之結論應報告總統(第52條);媾和條約、通商條約、有關國際組織之條約及協定、有關國家財政負擔、有關國內法律變更、有關個人身分以及有關領土之讓與互換合併之條約及協定,非以法律不能批准或認可,非經批准或認可,不生效力。領土之讓、互換及合併,非得有關居民之同意,不生效力(第53條)。總統得與歐洲國家就其共同義務,在庇護及人權和基本自由保護方面簽署條約,以確定各自對庇護申請的審查權限(第53-1條 第1項)。外交條約或協定,如憲法委員會(Le Conseil constitutionnel)因總統、內閣總理或兩院議長之請求審議,而宣告其與憲法牴觸時,在憲法未修正以前不能予以批准或認可。外交條約或協定經合法批准或認可後,自公布之日起,有優於法律之效力,但須對方同時付諸實施( 第55條 )。

法國憲法專章(第15章)[4]載明法國與歐盟關係。任何有關批准加入歐盟的立法建議,都必須由總統發動的公投決定之。法國根據2007年簽署的里斯本條約,參加由《歐洲聯盟條約》和《歐洲聯盟運作條約》自由選擇行使某些共同權力的國家組成的歐洲聯盟;根據歐盟機構對歐盟採取的行動,確定與歐洲逮捕令有關的規則;根據1992年馬斯垂克條約規定,只有在法國居住的歐洲聯盟公民才能享有在市政選舉中的投票和參選權。這些公民不得擔任市長或副市長的職務,也不得參加參議院選民的任命或參議員的選舉。國會(l'Assemblée nationale et le Sénat)兩院以相同方式通過的《機構法》決定有關執行細則。法國政府將其歐洲立法規範(actes législatifs européens)法案,以及其他關係歐盟的規範(actes non-législatifs européens)法案或建議,提交歐盟理事會的同時,向國會提出之。按照國會各自議事規則規定的方式依法通過歐洲決議(résolutions européennes)。每個議會均應設立一個負責歐洲事務的委員會。

任何授權批准某國加入歐洲聯盟有關的條約的政府法案,均應由總統提交全民公投決定之,或國會兩院以每院五分之三的多數通過之。國會可就歐洲立法規範法案與補充原則的符合性發表合理意見,由相關國會議長向歐洲議會,歐盟理事會和歐洲執委會主席提出,並通知政府。國會可針對違反補充原則的歐盟法,向歐洲聯盟法院提起訴訟,由政府移送之。國會可以通過一項動議,反對在簡化的條約修訂程序或司法合作規定的情況下修改有關歐洲聯盟法令通過規則的任何修改。

 (二)德國

德國聯邦基本法 (1949年公布,最新2019年修訂)[5] 第25條,國際法的一般原則構成聯邦法的一部分,優先直接對聯邦境內之住民賦予權利並設定義務。此規定不但表示國際法的一般原則在國內法上的效力,而且進一步承認國際法的優越性。

為建立歐洲聯盟的目的,德國聯邦(the Federal Republic of Germany)參與發展聯盟符合民主、社會和聯邦的原則,法治和補充原則(Principle of subsidiarity)以及基本法保障的基本權利。為此目的,德國政府得經聯邦參議院(the Bundesrat)之同意,依據法律移轉其主權(sovereign powers)的行使。歐洲聯盟建立及其基礎條約與相關規定之修改,致基本法之內容應予修改或補充,或可能修改或補充者,準照第79條第2項及第3項之規定[6]。聯邦議會(The Bundestag and the Bundesrat)對於歐洲聯盟違反補充原則的立法規範,有權向歐洲聯邦法院提起訴訟(the Court of Justice of the European Union)(第23條)。對於國際集體安全制度,聯邦得以立法將主權轉讓於國際組織(第24條)。各邦於其行使國家權能與履行國家任務之權限範圍內,在聯邦政府的同意下,將主權移交給鄰近地區的跨境機構。為解決國際爭端,聯邦得加入普遍性、概括性、強制性國際仲裁協定。

總統代表聯邦對外締結條約,但條約規定聯邦之政治關係或有關聯邦立法事項者,須經聯邦議會同意及依聯邦法律的立法程序為之(第59條)。

各邦之憲法秩序應符合基本法所定之共和、民主及社會法治國原則。各邦、縣市及鄉鎮人民應各有其經由普通、直接、自由、平等及秘密選舉而產生之代表機關,於縣市與鄉鎮之選舉,具有歐洲共同體成員國國籍之人,依歐洲共同體法之規定,亦享有選舉權與被選舉權;在鄉鎮得以鄉鎮民大會代替代表機關。各邦經由聯邦參議院參與聯邦立法、行政及歐盟事務(第28條、第50條)。  聯邦議會應設立委員會掌理歐盟執委會事務,授權該委員會執行聯邦議會依第23條相對於聯邦政府之權利;執行在歐洲聯盟條約之基礎下賦予聯邦議會之權利( 第45條)。對於與歐洲聯盟有關的事務( 第52條第3之1項),參議院得成立歐洲議院,其決議視為聯邦參議院之決議,各邦應統一之投票權數依本法第51條第2項之規定。航空運輸管理應在聯邦管理下進行,空中交通管制服務也可以由根據歐洲共同體法律授權的外國空中交通管制組織提供( 第87條之4)。

聯邦、各邦與歐盟的金融財務經濟管理規範有:1.-聯邦銀行與歐洲中央銀行關係。聯邦應設置一貨幣及發行幣券之銀行為聯邦銀行。在歐盟框架內,其職責和權力可以讓渡給歐洲中央銀行,後者是獨立的,並致力於確保價格穩定的首要目標(第88條);2.-國內財務分配與責任。德國因違反超國家或國際法上義務所生之負擔,由聯邦與各邦依本國管轄權及任務分配分擔之。因歐盟跨國性財務調整所生之負擔,由聯邦與各邦依15比85比例分擔之。於前述情形,總負擔之35%由各邦按一般分配比例共同分擔,總負擔之50%由引起負擔之邦按所得資金數額比例分擔之。其細節以須經聯邦參議院同意之聯邦法律定之(第104之1條);3.- 財政壟斷收益的分配。財政壟斷的收益及有關稅收的收入應歸聯邦包括歐洲共同體框架內徵收的稅款(第106條);4.-財務法院關於聯邦和各州的財務管理。關稅、財政專賣、聯邦法律所定之消費稅包括輸入營業稅以及歐洲共同市場內之稅捐,應由聯邦財政機關管理之( 第108條);5.-預算管理。聯邦與各邦共同履行歐洲共同體基於創立歐洲共同體條約第104條為確保財政收支穩定所規定德意志聯邦共和國之義務,於此範圍內並應考量整體經濟均勢之需要。歐洲共同體基於創立歐洲共同體條約第104條為確保財政收支穩定所為之制裁措施,由聯邦及各邦以65對35之比例負擔之。各邦負擔部分35%,由各邦按其人口數比例共同分擔之;各邦負擔部分65%,由引起該負擔之各邦依比例承擔之。其細節以須經聯邦參議院同意之聯邦法律定之(第109條);6.-緊急預算規範。自2020年起,聯邦和各邦應將對第109條第3項款規定的遵守情況的監督工作委託給穩定委員會。監督的重點應放在基於《歐洲聯盟運作條約》的法律行為中遵守預算紀律的規定和程序上( 第109之1條)。

人權保障與歐盟相關的有引渡德國公民到歐盟等的規範:德國人的公民身分非得依法律的規定不得被剝奪,德國人民不得引渡於外國。在符合法治國原則的情況下,得以法律就引渡至歐盟會員國或國際法庭為其他規定(第16條)。受政治迫害的人有權利得到屁護,但由歐洲共同體之會員國或由一個保障關於難民法律地位之協約或歐洲人權公約有其適用之第三國入境者除外。歐洲共同體會員國以外,符合法定要件之國家,以須經聯邦參議院同意之法律定之。以上規定不阻止歐洲共同體會員國相互間之其與第三國所締結之國際條約,係尊重於締約國內應予適用之有關難民法律之協約與歐洲人權公約,而所締結之國際條約中規定審查庇護申請之管轄與庇護決定之相互承認者(第16之1條)。

 (三)意大利

意大利憲法(1947年公布,最新2018年修正)[7]明文,義大利的司法制度遵照國際法原則(第10條第1項),外國人身份的法律規定遵照國際法或國際條約(第10條第2 項),稅或預算法、大赦、特赦或批准國際條約均不能以公投決定之(第75條)。國際條約,凡具有政治性質、提供仲裁或法院裁決的法令、涉及領土的變更、課加財政負擔、或造成修改法律者,均需經國會以法律批准之[8](第80條)。

  立法權應歸屬於國家和地區[9],以符合憲法以及歐盟法規和國際義務所產生的限制。國家在以下領域具有專屬立法權(Exclusive legislative powers):國家的外交政策和國際關係;國家與歐盟之間的關係;非歐盟公民的庇護權和法律地位等。共享立法權(Concurrent legislative powers)應適用於以下領域:各地區的國際和歐盟關係;外貿; 工作保護和安全;教育,但受教育機構自主權的約束,職業教育和培訓除外;專業;支持生產部門的科學技術研究和創新;保健; 營養; 體育; 賑災; 土地利用規劃;民用港口和機場;大型運輸和導航網絡;通訊規則;全國生產,運輸和分配能源;補充和補充社會保障;協調公共財政和稅收;加強文化和環境資產,包括促進和組織文化活動;儲蓄銀行,農村銀行,區域信貸機構;地區土地和農業信貸機構。在共享立法的部門中,立法權應歸屬各地區,但基本原則的確定除外,這些基本原則應由國家立法確定。地區應在未明確歸屬於國家的所有領域中具有立法權。

 (四)荷蘭

荷蘭憲法(1815年公布,最新2018年修正)[10]第五章立法與施行,第二節其他規定關係條約[11],承認國際條約的優越性,政府應該促進國際法律秩序的發展(第90條)。條約在未經國會批准前,荷蘭王國不受其約束,亦不應被宣告廢止(第91條)。條約不需要批准的情況應由議會法(Act of Parliament)訂之。那些應被批准的批准方式應由《議會法》規定,可提供默認的可能性(tacit approval)。條約的任何條款若與憲法相牴觸或將導致與憲法的規定衝突時,國會(the Houses of the States General)只可能以議員至少三分之二的同意通過之。可以或根據條約賦予國際機構立法、行政和司法權力(第92條)。條約和國際組織的決議的規定由於其內容可能對所有人具有約束力,其規定應在公佈後成為具有約束力的(93條)。如果王國內部的法規在適用上和以上條約或國際機構決議的規定衝突時,則不得適用(第94條)。

 (五)比利時

比利時王國憲法(1831年公布,最新2020年修訂)[12]規定,條約或法律得將行使特定權力的權力分配給國際公法機構(第34條)。 法律可以根據比利時的國際義務和超國家義務,確立對非比利時公民的歐洲聯盟公民與非歐洲聯盟公民的比利時居民的投票、居留等權利(第8條)。依據憲法眾議院(House of Representatives)的選舉與歐洲議會的選舉在同一天舉行[13];關於歐洲議會的選舉,法律確定特別規則,以保護前布拉班特省法語和荷蘭語人民的合法利益(第168bis條)。國會(the Houses)從開始就被告知關於建立歐洲共同體的條約的任何修訂以及對其進行修改或補充的條約的談判。他們在收到條約草案後簽署條約草案(第168條)。

依照憲法第167條,國王指引國際關係(第1項),儘管共同體和地區的調整國際合作權限,包括在憲法第121條所述的領域或其本能締結條約。即除第3項所述的事項外,憲法賦予國王結締條約的權力(第2項),但僅在眾議院批准後才生效力。國王在徵得有關共同體[14](德語共同體German-Speaking Community、法語共同體French-Speaking Community、荷語共同體Flemish Community)或地區政府的共同同意後,可以通告廢除1993年5月18日之前締結的條約(5項)。憲法第121條所述的共同體(語言區共同體)和區域政府就其各自議會權限之內的事項締結有關條約,這些條約只有在得到議會批准後才能生效(第3項)。為確保遵守國際義務或超國家義務,在滿足法律規定條件的前提下,第36條[15]和第37條[16]所述的當局可以暫時取代第115條[17]和第121條[18]所述的機構(憲法第169條)。

(六)盧森堡

盧森堡大公國憲法(1868年頒布,2020年修訂)[1],第37 條第1項[2]「條約未經通過法律及依法公布不生效力。」。每個法律都需要獲得眾議院(la Chambre des Députés)的同意(第46條)。公權力的法律解釋只能透過法律(第48條),而對外的國際關係,依據憲法第49之2條[3]行使權利保留,憲法可以暫時依據條約,將立法,行政和司法權力移交給國際法機構。

 (七)愛爾蘭

愛爾蘭憲法(1937公布,2020年修正)[4]第29條[5]規定關於國際關係與加入歐體、歐盟的相關法則。申明愛爾蘭致力於建立在國際正義和道德基礎上的國家之間的和平與友好合作的理想,堅持通過國際仲裁或司法裁定和平解決國際爭端的原則,接受公認的國際法原則作為其與其他國家關係的行為準則;在其對外關係中或與其有關的行政權,根據憲法第28條應由政府或由政府授權行使。為了行使國家在對外關係中或與其外部關係有關的行政職能,政府可以在法律允許的範圍內,並在法律規定的條件下(如有)利用或採用為了共同關心的國際合作目的而與該國家有聯繫,或成為國家聯繫的任何國家集團或國家聯盟的成員為類似目的,而使用或採用的任何機關,文書或程序方法;依據憲法第29條第4項第3款至第10款,加入歐洲共同體、簽署歐盟里斯本條約、依據歐洲聯盟條約和歐洲聯盟運作條約授權歐盟執委會採取共同外交政策,通過經濟和貨幣聯盟穩定、協調和治理條約,財政穩定條約(Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union, TSCG)。

憲法的任何規定均不得使依照條約通過的法規或採取的措施無效,而這些是國家根據該條約承擔的義務所必需的;或阻止該條約的主管機構執行已頒布的法律,或採取已具有法律效力的行動或措施;第5項至第6項,除了愛爾蘭議會(Dáil Éireann)所確定之外,任何國際協議均不得成為該國國內法的一部分,也就是說國際協議必須經由國會同意才能成為國內法的一部分。

 (八)丹麥

丹麥王國憲法法(1849年公布,1953年修正)[6]規定,國王在國際事務中代表王國(the Realm)行事,但除非得到國會(Folketing)的同意,不得採取任何行動來擴大或縮小王國的領土,也不得承擔任何需要國會共同履行的義務或在其他方面具有重大意義的義務;除非得到國會同意,國王也不得退出經國會同意的任何國際條約。國會應從其成員中任命一個外交政策委員會,政府在做出對外交政策具有重要意義的任何決定之前應與之協商。適用於外交政策委員會的規則應由法律定訂之(第19條)。

在憲法授權下,國會經六分之五的多數議員同意且在憲法規定的範圍內或按憲法第42條全民公投決定,將權力讓渡給與其他國家共同商定設立的國際當局,以促進國際合作(第20條[7])。

 

[1]盧森堡憲法Constitution Du Grand-Duche de Luxembourg, http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/recueil/constitution/20200519

[2] Ibid., Article 37  Le Grand-Duc fait les traités. Les traités n’auront d’effet avant d’avoir été approuvés par la loi et publiés dans les formes prévues pour la publication des lois.

[3] Ibid., Article 49bis  L’exercice d’attributions réservées par la Constitution aux pouvoirs législatif, exécutif et judiciaire peut être temporairement dévolu par traité à des institutions de droit international.

[4]愛爾蘭憲法 Constitution of Ireland, http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/cons/en/html

[5] Ibid., Article 29 1 Ireland affirms its devotion to the ideal of peace and friendly co-operation amongst nations founded on international justice and morality.

2 Ireland affirms its adherence to the principle of the pacific settlement of international disputes by international arbitration or judicial determination.

3 Ireland accepts the generally recognised principles of international law as its rule of conduct in its relations with other States.

4  1° The executive power of the State in or in connection with its external relations shall in accordance with Article 28 of this Constitution be exercised by or on the authority of the Government.  2° For the purpose of the exercise of any executive function of the State in or in connection with its external relations, the Government may to such extent and subject to such conditions, if any, as may be determined by law, avail of or adopt any organ, instrument, or method of procedure used or adopted for the like purpose by the members of any group or league of nations with which the State is or becomes associated for the purpose of international co-operation in matters of common concern.  3° The State may become a member of the European Atomic Energy Community (established by Treaty signed at Rome on the 25th day of March, 1957).  4° Ireland affirms its commitment to the European Union within which the member states of that Union work together to promote peace, shared values and the well-being of their peoples.  5° The State may ratify the Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, signed at Lisbon on the 13th day of December 2007 ("Treaty of Lisbon"), and may be a member of the European Union established by virtue of that Treaty.  6° No provision of this Constitution invalidates laws enacted, acts done or measures adopted by the State, before, on or after the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, that are necessitated by the obligations of membership of the European Union referred to in subsection 5° of this section or of the European Atomic Energy Community, or prevents laws enacted, acts done or measures adopted by—i  the said European Union or the European Atomic Energy Community, or institutions thereof; ii  the European Communities or European Union existing immediately before the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, or institutions thereof, or iii  bodies competent under the treaties referred to in this section, from having the force of law in the State. 7° The State may exercise the options or discretions—i  to which Article 20 of the Treaty on European Union relating to enhanced cooperation applies;ii  under Protocol No. 19 on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union annexed to that treaty and to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (formerly known as the Treaty establishing the European Community), and iii under Protocol No. 21 on the position of the United Kingdom and Ireland in respect of the area of freedom, security and justice, so annexed, including the option that the said Protocol No. 21 shall, in whole or in part, cease to apply to the State, but any such exercise shall be subject to the prior approval of both Houses of the Oireachtas. 8° The State may agree to the decisions, regulations or other acts—i  under the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union authorising the Council of the European Union to act other than by unanimity; ii  under those treaties authorising the adoption of the ordinary legislative procedure, and iii under subparagraph (d) of Article 82.2, the third subparagraph of Article 83.1 and paragraphs 1 and 4 of Article 86 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, relating to the area of freedom, security and justice, but the agreement to any such decision, regulation or act shall be subject to the prior approval of both Houses of the Oireachtas. 9° The State shall not adopt a decision taken by the European Council to establish a common defence pursuant to Article 42 of the Treaty on European Union where that common defence would include the State. 10° The State may ratify the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union done at Brussels on the 2nd day of March 2012. No provision of this Constitution invalidates laws enacted, acts done or measures adopted by the State that are necessitated by the obligations of the State under that Treaty or prevents laws enacted, acts done or measures adopted by bodies competent under that Treaty from having the force of law in the State.

5  1° Every international agreement to which the State becomes a party shall be laid before Dáil Éireann. 2° The State shall not be bound by any international agreement involving a charge upon public funds unless the terms of the agreement shall have been approved by Dáil Éireann. 3° This section shall not apply to agreements or conventions of a technical and administrative character.

6 No international agreement shall be part of the domestic law of the State save as may be determined by the Oireachtas.

7  1° The State may consent to be bound by the British-Irish Agreement done at Belfast on the 10th day of April, 1998, hereinafter called the Agreement. 2° Any institution established by or under the Agreement may exercise the powers and functions thereby conferred on it in respect of all or any part of the island of Ireland notwithstanding any other provision of this Constitution conferring a like power or function on any person or any organ of State appointed under or created or established by or under this Constitution. Any power or function conferred on such an institution in relation to the settlement or resolution of disputes or controversies may be in addition to or in substitution for any like power or function conferred by this Constitution on any such person or organ of State as aforesaid.

 8 The State may exercise extra-territorial jurisdiction in accordance with the generally recognised principles of international law.

9 The State may ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court done at Rome on the 17th day of July, 1998.

[6]丹麥憲法Danish Constitutional Act, https://www.thedanishparliament.dk/-/media/pdf/publikationer/english/my_constitutional_act_with_explanations.ashx

[7] Ibid., Section 20, Subsection 1. Powers vested in the authorities of the Realm under this Constitutional Act may, to such an extent as shall be provided by statute, be delegated to international authorities set up by mutual agreement with other states for the promotion of international rules of law and cooperation. Subsection.  2. For the enactment of a Bill dealing with the above, a majority of five sixths of the Members of the Folketing shall be required. If this majority is not obtained, whereas the majority required for the passing of ordinary Bills is obtained, and if the Government maintains it, the Bill shall be submitted to the electorate for approval or rejection in accordance with the rules for referenda laid down in Section 42.

 


 

[1] Mattias Kumm, “International Law, National Courts and the International Rule of Law”, Virginia Journal of International Law(Vol. 44:1).

[2]劉慶瑞,〈國際法在國內法上的地位之比較研究〉,《比較憲法》,頁370。

[3]法國憲法Constitution of 4 October 1958, https://www.conseil-constitutionnel.fr/sites/default/files/2018-10/constitution_anglais.pdf

[4] Ibid.,Articles 88-1-88-7.

[5] 德國基本法Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, https://www.btg-bestellservice.de/pdf/80201000.pdf

[6] Ibid.,Article 79 (Amendment of the Basic Law )(2) Any such law shall be carried by two thirds of the Members of the Bundestag and two thirds of the votes of the Bundesrat. (3) Amendments to this Basic Law affecting the division of the Federation into Länder, their participation in principle in the legislative process, or the principles laid down in Articles 1(Human dignity – Human rights – Legally binding force of basic rights) and 20(Constitutional principles – Right of resistance) shall be inadmissible.

 

[7]意大利憲法 Constitution of the Italian Republic, http://www.senato.it/application/xmanager/projects/leg18/file/repository/relazioni/libreria/novita/XVII/COST_INGLESE.pdf

[8]  Ibid., Article 80  Parliament shall authorise by law the ratification of such international treaties as have a political nature, require arbitration or legal settle-ments, entail border changes, new expenditure or new legislation.

[9] Ibid., Article 117  Legislative powers shall be vested in the State and the Regions in compliance with the Constitution and the constraints deriving from EU legislation and international obligations.

The State shall have exclusive legislative powers in the following fields: a) foreign policy and international relations of the State; relations between the State and the European Union; right of asylum and legal status of non-EU citizens; b) immigration; c) relations between the Republic and religious denominations; d) defence and armed forces; State security; armaments, ammunition and explosives;

e) currency, financial markets and protection of savings; protection of competition; foreign exchange system; state taxation and accounting systems; harmonisation of public accounts; equalisation of financial resources; f) state bodies and relevant electoral laws; state referendums; elections to the European Parliament; g) legal and administrative organisation of the State and national governmental agencies; h) public order and security, with the exception of local administrative police; i) citizenship, vital records and registry offices; l) jurisdiction and procedural rules; civil and criminal law; administrative justice; m) determination of the minimum levels of benefits relating to civil and social entitlements to be ensured throughout the national territory; n) general provisions on education; o) social security; p) electoral legislation, governing bodies and fundamental functions of municipalities, provinces and metropolitan cities; q) customs, protection of national borders

and international preventive healthcare; r) weights and measures; standard time; statistical and computerised co-ordination of data in state, regional and local administrations; products of the intellect;

s) protection of the environment, the ecosystem and cultural heritage.

 Concurrent legislative authority shall apply to the following fields: international and EU relations of the Regions; foreign trade; job protection and safety; education, subject to the autonomy of educational institutions and with the exception of vocational education and training; professions; scientific and technological research and innovation in support of productive sectors; health protection; nutrition; sports; disaster relief; land-use planning; civil ports and airports; large transport and navigation networks; regulation of communications; national production, transport and distribution of energy; complementary and supplementary social security; co-ordination of public finance and taxation; enhancement of cultural and environmental assets, including the promotion and organisation of cultural activities; savings banks, rural banks, regional credit institutions; regional land and agricultural credit institutions. In the sectors of concurrent legislation, legislative powers shall be vested in the Regions, except for the determination of fundamental principles, which shall be established by State legislation.

Regions shall have legislative powers in all fields that are not expressly attributed to the State.

The Regions and autonomous provinces of Trento and Bolzano shall take part in the preparatory decision-making process of EU legislative acts in the areas that fall within their responsibilities.

They shall also be responsible for the implementation of international agreements and EU measures, subject to the procedural rules set out in State legislation regulating the authority of the State to take over in case of failure to act by Regions or autonomous provinces.

The State shall have regulatory powers in its areas of exclusive legislation, subject to any delegations of such powers to the Regions. Regulatory powers shall be vested in the Regions in all other subject matters. Municipalities, provinces and metropolitan cities shall have regulatory powers as to the organisation and implementation of the functions attributed to them.

Regional laws shall remove any hindrances to the full equality of men and women in social, cultural and economic life and promote equal access to elected offices for men and women.

An agreement between a Region and other Regions aiming to improve the performance of regional functions and also envisaging the establishment of joint bodies shall be ratified by regional law.

In the areas falling within its responsibilities, a Region may enter into agreements with foreign States and local authorities of other States in the cases and according to the forms laid down by State law.

[10] 荷蘭憲法The Constitution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,

 https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5730.html 

[11] Ibid., Articles 90-95.

[12] 比利時憲法The Belgian Constitution, https://www.dekamer.be/kvvcr/pdf_sections/publications/constitution/GrondwetUK.pdf

[13] Ibid., Article 65 The members of the House of Representatives are elected for five years.

The House is re-elected as a whole every five years. Elections for the House take place on the same day as elections for the European Parliament. After elections for the European Parliament have been held in 2014, a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph sets the date on which the third paragraph comes into force. This date is that on which Article 46, sixth paragraph and Article 118, § 2, fourth sub-paragraph come into force. Parliamentary elections at federal level will in any case take place on the same day as the first elections for the European Parliament following the publication of this revision in the Belgian Official Gazette.

[14] Ibid., Article 4 Belgium comprises four linguistic regions: the Dutch-speaking region, the French-speaking region, the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital and the German-speaking region. Each municipality of the Kingdom forms part of one of these linguistic regions. The boundaries of the four linguistic regions can only be changed or corrected by a law passed by a majority of the votes cast in each linguistic group in each House, on condition that a majority of the members of each group is present and provided that the total number of votes in favour that are cast in the two linguistic groups is equal to at least two thirds of the votes cast.

[15] Ibid., Article 36 The federal legislative power is exercised jointly by the King, the House of Representatives and the Senate.

[16] Ibid., Article 37 The federal executive power, as regulated by the Constitution, belongs to the King.

[17] Ibid., Article 115  § 1  There is a Parliament of the Flemish Community, called the Flemish Parliament, and a Parliament of the French Community, the composition and functioning of which are determined by a law adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph. There is a Parliament of the German-speaking Community, the composition and functioning of which are determined by the law. § 2. Without prejudice to Article 137, the regional bodies referred to in Article 39 include a Parliament for each Region.

[18] Ibid., Article 121 § 1. There is a Government of the Flemish Community and a Government of the French Community, the composition and functioning of which are determined by a law adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph. There is a Government of the German-speaking Community, the composition and functioning of which are determined by the law. § 2. Without prejudice to Article 137, the regional bodies referred to in Article 39 include a Government for each Region.